Adv Pharm Bull. 2015;5(3):443-446.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2015.060
PMID: 26504768
PMCID: PMC4616888
Scopus id: 84983577469
  Abstract View: 430
  PDF Download: 253

Short Communication

Apoptosis Cell Death Effect of Scrophularia Variegata on Breast Cancer Cells via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

Abbas Azadmehr 1,2, Reza Hajiaghaee 3 * , Behzad Baradaran 4, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi 5

1 Immunology Department, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
2 Immunology Department, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
3 Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutics Department of Medicinal Plants Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Karaj, Iran.
4 Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
5 Physiology Department, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.


Purpose: Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant which is used for various inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer and cytotoxic effects of the Scrophularia variegata (S. variegata) ethanolic extract on the human breast cancer cell line.

Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of the extract on MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, Caspase activity, DNA ladder and Cell death were evaluated by ELISA, gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively.

Results: The S. variegata extract showed significant effect cytotoxicity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with the extract induced apoptosis on the breast cancer cells by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The results indicated that cytotoxicity activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as well as an increase of the amount of caspase 3 and caspase 9. In addition, the phytochemical assay showed that the extract had antioxidant capacity and also flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the extract.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that S. variegata extract induced apoptosis via mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on breast cancer by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and an increase of caspase 3 and caspase 9. However future studies are needed.

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Submitted: 25 Jan 2015
Revised: 30 May 2015
First published online: 19 Sep 2015
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