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Adv Pharm Bull. 2017;7(1):21-34.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.004
PMID: 28507934
PMCID: PMC5426730
Scopus id: 85017542839
  Abstract View: 231
  PDF Download: 154

Review Article

The Challenges of Recombinant Endostatin in Clinical Application: Focus on the Different Expression Systems and Molecular Bioengineering

Abbas Mohajeri 1,2, Sarvin Sanaei 2, Farhad Kiafar 1, Amir Fattahi 3, Majid Khalili 4, Nosratollah Zarghami 2,3,5 *

1 Department of Biotechnology, Zahravi Pharmaceutical Company, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
4 Department of Basic Science, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.
5 Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences,Tabriz, Iran.
*Corresponding Author: Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences,Tabriz, Iran. E-mail:


Angiogenesis plays an essential role in rapid growing and metastasis of the tumors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a putative strategy for cancer therapy. Endostatin (Es) is an attractive anti-angiogenesis protein with some clinical application challenges including; short half-life, instability in serum and requirement to high dosage. Therefore, production of recombinant endostatin (rEs) is necessary in large scale. The production of rEs is difficult because of its structural properties and is high-cost. Therefore, this review focused on the different expression systems that involved in rEs production including; mammalian, baculovirus, yeast, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression systems. The evaluating of the results of different expression systems declared that none of the mentioned systems can be considered to be generally superior to the other. Meanwhile with considering the advantages and disadvantage of E. coli expression system compared with other systems beside the molecular properties of Es, E. coli expression system can be a preferred expression system for expressing of the Es in large scale. Also, the molecular bioengineering and sustained release formulations that lead to improving of its stability and bioactivity will be discussed. Point mutation (P125A) of Es, addition of RGD moiety or an additional zinc biding site to N-terminal of Es , fusing of Es to anti-HER2 IgG or heavy-chain of IgG, and finally loading of the endostar by PLGA and PEG- PLGA nanoparticles and gold nano-shell particles are the effective bioengineering methods to overcome to clinical changes of endostatin.
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