Scopus Journal Metrics

CiteScore (2016): 2.10

SNIP (2016): 1.075

SJR (2016): 0.61

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Adv Pharm Bull. 2016;6(2):271-274.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2016.038
PMID: 27478792
PMCID: PMC4961988
Scopus id: 84980361842
  Abstract View: 435
  PDF Download: 290

Short Communication

Spices Mixture Containing Garlic, Ginger and Nutmeg Has Protective Effects on the Kidneys and Liver of Cadmium Exposed Rats

Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja 1,2 * , Omotayo O. Erejuwa 3, Nicholas C. Ugwu 2

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ebonyi State University, P. M. B. 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
2 Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ebonyi State University, P. M. B. 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
3 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Ebonyi State University, P. M. B. 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.


Purpose: To determine the potential protective effect of spice mixture containing garlic, ginger and nutmeg on the liver and kidney of cadmium exposed rats.

Methods: Male albino rats (n=30) weighing 120 – 180 g, grouped into five (1-5) of 6 rats/group were studied. Group 1 (NC) rats were administered distilled water (1 ml) orally for 4 weeks and served as the negative control while group 2 (PC) rats were administered low dose (LD) cadmium (25 mg/kg body weight) orally for 4 weeks and served as positive control. Group 3 (TBE) rats were treated with spice mixture (SM); 300 mg/kg body weight orally for 2 weeks and then administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks. While group 4 (CET) rats were concurrently administered LD cadmium and SM for 4 weeks, group 5 (TAE) rats were administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks and then treated with SM for 2 weeks. The whole experiment lasted for 42 day after which the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for determination of biochemical parameters using standard procedures and techniques.

Results: Exposure to Cd produced greater increases in the liver function parameters. However treatment with SM significantly (p<0.05) reduced ALT in animals treated after exposure, AST and bilirubin in those treated before exposure and significant (p<0.05) increased serum albumin in animals treated before exposure to Cd. The altered renal function parameters and total serum cholesterol were restored to near normal values following treatment with SM.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that concurrent intake of garlic, ginger and nutmeg at culinary dose in the diet has both therapeutic and prophylactic effect at mitigating Cd toxicity and reaffirms the safely of spices combinations as being currently practiced.

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Submitted: 01 Mar 2016
Revised: 01 Jun 2016
Accepted: 03 Jun 2016
First published online: 29 Jun 2016
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