Adv Pharm Bull. 2018;8(4):627-635.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2018.071
  Abstract View: 18
  PDF Download: 43

Research Article

Investigating the Cytotoxicity of Folate-Conjugated Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles on KB and A549 Cell Lines

Fatemeh Akbarzadeh 1 ORCiD, Karim Khoshgard 2 * ORCiD, Leila Hosseinzadeh 3 ORCiD, Elham Arkan 4 ORCiD, Davood Rezazadeh 5 ORCiD

1 Students Research Committee, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
2 Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
3 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
4 Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
5 Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Abstract

Purpose: Lately, bismuth-based nanomaterials have been widely utilized in medical researches such as imaging, drug delivery and radio-sensitization. Despite their advantages, bismuth-based compounds have shown toxic effects in humans. There are few studies on cytotoxicity effects of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) in-vitro. In this study, we aimed to investigate cytotoxicity of bare and also folate and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-conjugated Bi2O3 NPs on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (KB) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines. Methods: Bi2O3 NPs were synthesized and conjugated with folate and 5-ALA. KB and A549 cells were cultured and incubated with 10, 20, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations of bare and folate-5-ALA-conjugated NPs. The survival rates were obtained after 2 and 24 hours incubation of the cells with NPs using MTT assay. Also, apoptosis and ROS generation induced by the NPs in the treated cells were obtained using Caspases-3 activity assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Results: Bi2O3 NPs were successfully synthesized with average size of 19.2 ± 6.5 nm, then conjugated with 5-ALA and folate. Either naked or folate-conjugated NPs were easily taken up by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner and showed cytotoxic effects. The significant cell death was noted at the concentrations more than 50 μg/ml for both compounds. Conclusion: Results indicated low cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs at lower incubation periods, which is very important for their further applications. However, 24 hours incubation of the cells with both forms of NPs caused more cell killing and the cytotoxicity increased with increasing concentrations of the NPs.
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Submitted: 26 Mar 2018
Revised: 27 Jun 2018
Accepted: 15 Aug 2018
First published online: 29 Nov 2018
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