Adv Pharm Bull. 2018;8(4):535-550.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2018.063
PMID: 30607327
PMCID: PMC6311647
Scopus id: 85057714690
  Abstract View: 335
  PDF Download: 441

Review Article

Transdermal Evaporation Drug Delivery System: Concept to Commercial Products

Rabinarayan Parhi 1 * ORCiD, Suryakanta Swain 2 ORCiD

1 GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Gandhi Nagar Campus, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2 Southern Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, SIMS Group of Institutions, Mangaldas Nagar, Vijyawada Road, Guntur-522 001, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Since two decades or so transdermal route established itself as better alternative to traditional oral route. This is possible due to continuous innovations in transdermal drug delivery (TDD), which not only enables researchers from academia and industry to successfully develop and launch many new pharmaceuticals but also allow to include new classes of drugs that can be developed into transdermal formulations. These successes are achieved due to the use of novel techniques based on either physical or chemical approaches. However, both of these techniques suffer due to their own disadvantages. Comparatively, a simple method of supersaturation to enhance drug permeation across skin has created a new wave of interest. Even though the application supersaturated principle in topical and TDD has been used from 1960s, but proper control of drug release and formation of stable supersaturated states has been the core of intense research in the last decade. Out of various methods used to get supersaturated system, evaporation method is considered as most efficient and practically feasible for TDD. Therefore, in this review concept of supersaturation, selection of solvent system and the mechanism of inhibition of crystallization are discussed. Application of evaporation systems in the development of transdermal formulations such as solutions, semisolids and metered dose therapeutic systems (MDTS) and the commercial evaporative systems are also discussed in this review.
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Submitted: 02 Apr 2018
Revised: 27 Aug 2018
Accepted: 14 Oct 2018
First published online: 29 Nov 2018
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