Adv Pharm Bull. 2015;5(5):605-614.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2015.082
PMID: 26793605
PMCID: PMC4708030
Scopus id: 84954092442
  Abstract View: 934
  PDF Download: 535

Review Article

Toll-Like Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases

Akbar Mohammad Hosseini 1, Jafar Majidi 1 * , Behzad Baradaran 1 * , Mehdi Yousefi 2,1

1 Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane receptors, which play a key role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Beside of recognizing specific molecular patterns that associated with different types of pathogens, TLRs may also detect a number of self-proteins and endogenous nucleic acids. Activating TLRs lead to the heightened expression of various inflammatory genes, which have a protective role against infection. Data rising predominantly from human patients and animal models of autoimmune disease indicate that, inappropriate triggering of TLR pathways by exogenous or endogenous ligands may cause the initiation and/or perpetuation of autoimmune reactions and tissue damage. Given their important role in infectious and non-infectious disease process, TLRs and its signaling pathways emerge as appealing targets for therapeutics. In this review, we demonstrate how TLRs pathways could be involved in autoimmune disorders and their therapeutic application.
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Submitted: 24 May 2014
Revised: 02 Jul 2014
Accepted: 21 Jul 2014
First published online: 31 Dec 2015
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