Cancer remains a complex disease with increasing global mortality and morbidity. Numerous theories have been established to understand the biological mechanism underlying cancer. One of the most renowned frameworks is the hallmark of cancer proposed by Hanahan and Weinberg that covers ten eminent characteristics of cancer: (i) genome instability and mutation, (ii) sustaining proliferative signaling, (iii) evading growth suppressor, (iv) enabling replicative immortality, (v) resisting cell death, (vi) inducing angiogenesis, (vii) activating invasion and metastasis, (viii) avoiding immune destruction, (ix) tumor-promoting inflammation, and (x) deregulating cellular energetics. These hallmarks provide a rational approach to design an anticancer therapy. In the current review, we summarized specific target molecules on each hallmark of cancer. Further, we evaluated the biological activity of several Indonesia medicinal plants against those specific targets. We explicated the anticancer and chemopreventive activities of some medicinal plants that have been used for centuries by local communities in Indonesia, including Curcuma genus, Brucea javanica, Boesenbergia pandurata, Caesalpinia sappan, and Nigella sativa. Interestingly, these medicinal plants target several hallmarks of cancer, and even Curcuma genus exhibited biological activities that target all hallmarks of cancer. Further, we also discuss several strategies to develop those medicinal plants and/or their active compounds as anticancer and chemopreventive agents.