Adv Pharm Bull. 2021;11(1): 120-129.
doi: 10.34172/apb.2021.013
  Abstract View: 487
  PDF Download: 293

Research Article

Development of New Indonesian Propolis Extract-Loaded Selfemulsifying: Characterization, Stability and Antibacterial Activity

Yandi Syukri 1* ORCID logo, Annisa Fitria 1, Suci Hanifah 1, Muthiah Idrati 1

1 Department of Pharmacy, Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta 55584, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author: Yandi Syukri, Tel: +62274895920, Fax: +62274896439, Email: yandisyukri@uii.ac.id


Purpose: This study aimed to prepare, characterize, examine the stability and evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Indonesian propolis extract-loaded self-emulsifying (PESE).

Methods: Oil, emulsifier, and co-emulsifier were selected as the carrier for the PESE formulation through a propolis-extract solubility test on each carrier, followed by evaluation of the nanoemulsion region in a pseudo ternary phase diagram. Pre-concentrate of PESE was prepared with the addition of 150 mg/mL propolis extract followed by characterization for the transmittance, globule size, zeta potential, thermodynamic stability, robustness to dilution, and accelerated stability. The selected formulation was tested for antibacterial activity using a microdilution method.

Results: The PESE characterization produced a clear nanoemulsion with a globule size ranging from 13 to 45 nm and zeta potential of less than −38 mV. The PESE formulation with a composition of 150 mg/mL propolis extract, 20% castor oil, 40%–70% Kolliphor EL, and 10%–40% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 were thermodynamically stable. The PESE formulation with the composition of 20% castor oil, 40% Kolliphor EL, and 40% PEG 400 was the optimum formulation that passed the robustness to dilution evaluation and an accelerated stability test for 3 months. The antibacterial activity test on this formulation indicated improved activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus compared with that of propolis extract.

Conclusion: These studies demonstrated that PESE in optimum formulation could be used as an antibacterial, particularly in E. coli and S. aureus.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Castor oil, Propolis extract, Self-emulsifying
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Submitted: 29 Aug 2019
Revision: 22 Apr 2020
Accepted: 22 Apr 2020
ePublished: 07 Nov 2020
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