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Adv Pharm Bull. Inpress.
doi: 10.34172/apb.2024.038
  Abstract View: 184

Review Article

Functionalized and theranostic lipidic and tocosomal drug delivery systems: potentials and limitations in cancer photodynamic therapy

Fahime Nasr Esfahani ORCID logo, Sahand Karimi, Zahra Jalilian, Mehran Alavi* ORCID logo, Bushra Aziz, Enam Alhagh Charkhat Gorgich, M. R. Mozafari ORCID logo, Elham Taghavi, sargol aminnezhad* ORCID logo, Sara Ataei
*Corresponding Authors: Email: mehranbio83@gmail.com; Email: aminnezhad.bio84@gmail.com

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a multidisciplinary area, which involves photophysics and photochemical sciences and plays an important role in cancer diagnosis and treatment. PDT involves a photo-activable drug called photosensitizer (PS), a specific wavelength of light and cellular compounds to produce toxic oxygen species in a much-localized way to destroy malignant tumors. Despite the various benefits of PDT, some PS-related limitations hinder its use as an ideal treatment option for cancer. To address these limitations (e.g., poor bioavailability, weak permeability, hydrophobicity, and aggregation), lipid-based and vesicular drug delivery systems have been employed. These carrier systems possess the ability to enhance the bioavailability, permeability, and solubility of the drug. Furthermore, they tend to load hydrophobic and lipophilic compounds and can be employed for an efficient and targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this review is to highlight the precise idea of PDT, the limitations of PDT related to PS, and the application of lipidic and tocosomal carriers in PDT for the treatment of various types of cancers. Liposomes, nanoliposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, vesicular phospholipid gels, exosomes, transferosomes, and tocosomes are presented as commonly–employed vesicular drug carriers. Moreover, the amalgamation of cell-based drug delivery systems (CBDDS) with PDT holds considerable potential as an encouraging avenue in cancer treatment, especially in the context of immunotherapy.
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Submitted: 16 Sep 2023
Revision: 09 Feb 2024
Accepted: 03 Mar 2024
ePublished: 11 Mar 2024
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