Abstract View: 62

Research Article

Tailored Limonene-Based Nanosized Microemulsion: Formulation, Physicochemical Characterization and In-vivo Skin Irritation Assessment

Mohammed M. Mehanna* ORCID logo, Kawthar Khalil Abla, Hoda A. Elmaradny

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon.


Purpose: Microemulsion achieved progressing consequences on both the research and industry levels due to their distinctive properties. Microemulsion based-limonene system is considered as a surrogate to the traditional microemulsion composed of conventional oils. Thus, a novel microemulsion based on D-limonene and Gelucire®44/12 had been designed and evaluated with assessing the factors affecting its physicochemical characteristics and its in-vivo skin irritation.
Methods: The impact of microemulsion components, nature, and ratios, on the isotropic region of the pseudo-ternary phase diagram was investigated. The optimal formula was evaluated in terms of percentage transmittance, average globule size, size distribution, zeta potential, microscopical morphology, stability under different storage conditions as well as its effect on the mice ear skin.
Results: The results pointed out that Labrasol® and Labrafil®M 1944 CS had been selected as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, due to their emulsifying abilities. The largest expanse of the isotropic area in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram was noticed at a weight ratio of 4:1 for Labrasol® and Labrafil®M 1944 CS as surfactant/co-surfactant, respectively. The optimized microemulsion was prepared with 25% w/w of the lipid phase, 58.3% w/w of the surfactants mixture aqueous phase and deionized water where it displayed optical transparency of 96.5±0.88 %, average globule size of 125±0.123 nm, polydispersity index of 0.272±0.009, zeta potential of -18.9± 2.79 mV with rounded shaped globules morphology and high stability features. The in-vivo skin irritation and the histopathological evaluation of microemulsion elucidated its safety profile when applied on the skin compared to D-limonene oil.
Conclusion: The formulated microemulsion is a prospective aid for an essential oil to minimize its volatility, enhance its stability, and mask its dermal irritant.
Keywords: D-limonene, Essential oil, Gelucire®44/14, Solid wax, Microemulsion, Pseudo-ternary phase diagram, Skin irritation
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Submitted: 22 May 2020
Revision: 17 Jul 2020
Accepted: 05 Aug 2020
ePublished: 09 Aug 2020
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