Adv Pharm Bull. 2020;10(2): 184-202.
doi: 10.34172/apb.2020.023
PMID: 32373487
PMCID: PMC7191230
Scopus ID: 85088691081
  Abstract View: 1155
  PDF Download: 619

Review Article

The Role of Natural Antioxidants Against Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by Cadmium Toxicity: A Review

Velid Unsal 1* ORCID logo, Tahir Dalkıran 2 ORCID logo, Mustafa Çiçek 3 ORCID logo, Engin Kölükçü 4 ORCID logo

1 Faculty of Health Sciences and Central Research Laboratory, Mardin Artuklu University, Mardin, Turkey. 2Department
2 Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Necip Fazıl City Hospital, 46030, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
3 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
4 Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa University,Tokat, Turkey.


Cadmium (Cd) is a significant ecotoxic heavy metal that adversely affects all biological processes of humans, animals and plants. Exposure to acute and chronic Cd damages many organs in humans and animals (e.g. lung, liver, brain, kidney, and testes). In humans, the Cd concentration at birth is zero, but because the biological half-life is long (about 30 years in humans), the concentration increases with age. The industrial developments of the last century have significantly increased the use of this metal. Especially in developing countries, this consumption is higher. Oxidative stress is the imbalance between antioxidants and oxidants. Cd increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and causes oxidative stress. Excess cellular levels of ROS cause damage to proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, membranes and organelles. This damage has been associated with various diseases. These include cancer, hypertension, ischemia/perfusion, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, acute respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, skin diseases, chronic kidney disease, eye diseases, neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington disease). Natural antioxidants are popular drugs that are used by the majority of people and have few side effects. Natural antioxidants play an important role in reducing free radicals caused by Cd toxicity. Our goal in this review is to establish the relationship between Cd and oxidative stress and to discuss the role of natural antioxidants in reducing Cd toxicity.
Keywords: Cadmium, Oxidative stress, ROS, Natural antioxidants
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Submitted: 04 Feb 2019
Revision: 24 Sep 2019
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019
ePublished: 20 Feb 2020
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