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Adv Pharm Bull. 2021;11(4): 580-594.
doi: 10.34172/apb.2021.068
  Abstract View: 446
  PDF Download: 157

Review Article

Breast Cancer: a Global Concern, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Perspectives, Mechanistic Targets in Drug Development

Gul-e-Saba Chaudhry 1* ORCID logo, Rehmat Jan 2, Abdah Akim 3, Muhammad Naveed Zafar 4, Yeong Yik Sung 1, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad 1

1 Institute of Marine Biotechnology, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
2 Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
3 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia.
4 Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.
*Corresponding Author: Gul-e-Saba Chaudhry, Tel: +609-6683810, Fax: +609-6683810, Email: gul.saba@umt.edu.my

Abstract

Cancer is a complex multifactorial process, unchecked and abrupt division, and cell growth—conventional chemotherapy, along with radiotherapy, is used to treat breast cancer. Due to reduce efficacy and less survival rate, there is a particular need for the discovery of new active anticancer agents. Natural resources such as terrestrial/marine plants or organisms are a promising source for the generation of new therapeutics with improving efficacy. The screening of natural plant extracts and fractions, isolations of phytochemicals, and mechanistic study of those potential compounds play a remarkable role in the development of new therapeutic drugs with increased efficacy. Cancer is a multistage disease with complex signaling cascades. The initial study of screening whole extracts or fractions and later the isolation of secondary compounds and their mechanism of action study gives a clue of potential therapeutic agents for future drug development. The phytochemicals present in extracts/fractions produce remarkable effects due to synergistically targeting multiple signals. In this review, the molecular targets of extracts/ fractions and isolated compounds highlighted. The therapeutic agent's mechanistic targets in drug development focused involves; i) Induction of Apoptosis, ii) modulating cell cycle arrest, iii) Inhibition or suppression of invasion and metastasis and iv) various other pro-survival signaling pathways. The phytochemicals and their modified analogs identified as future potential candidates for anticancer chemotherapy.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Breast cancer, Cell cycle arrest, Drug development, Natural products, Mechanism of action, Phytochemicals, Plant anticancer drugs

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Submitted: 27 Feb 2020
Revision: 10 Aug 2020
Accepted: 14 Oct 2020
ePublished: 14 Oct 2020
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