Adv Pharm Bull. 2019;9(3):374-381.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2019.044
  Abstract View: 29
  PDF Download: 51

Review Article

5-HIAA as a Potential Biological Marker for Neurological and PsychiatricDisorders

Hridya Jayamohananan, Maneesha Kalappurackal Manoj Kumar, Aneesh T P * ORCiD

1 Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Sciences Campus, Kochi, India.

Abstract

Neurological and psychiatric disorders occur in about 6 percent of the global populationindicating a significant amount of people suffering from neurological disorder on a varying rangein day to day life. On an extensive view, there is a critical requirement for the development ofan alternative biomarker for these conditions. The thwart found in developing a biomarker isthe difficulty in identifying a serum biomarker as these are mostly limited to the central nervoussystem (CNS). Serotonin being a neurotransmitter synthesized in the raphe nuclei of the braincould serve as an alternative biomarker. Here, the limitation is that it’s quickly metabolizedby the mitochondrial enzyme MAO to 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5HIAA). This subsequentmetabolite can be used for the analysis of serotonin levels in brain by analysing its concentrationin the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Many theories suggest that the variations in serotonin levelcould lead to the development of many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Alzheimer’sdisease (AD), schizophrenia, depression and so on. A decreased level is noticed in these patientsbut this could either be due to decreased production or increased reuptake of serotonin fromthe neuronal synapses. For instance, we know that a patient with depression shows a significantreduction in the levels of 5HIAA, due to the location of the raphe nuclei within regions ofmemory and cognition. Similarly, it does shows variation in AD and mild cognitive disorder.Evolving of 5HIAA as a biomarker, could be more delicate and enhanced strategy for monitoringthese disorders.
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Submitted: 11 Feb 2019
Revised: 08 Apr 2019
Accepted: 14 Apr 2019
First published online: 01 Aug 2019
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