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Adv Pharm Bull. 2021;11(3): 426-438.
doi: 10.34172/apb.2021.050
  Abstract View: 320
  PDF Download: 28

Review Article

Understanding Hyaluronan Receptor (CD44) Interaction, HA-CD44 Activated Potential Targets in Cancer Therapeutics

Gul-e-Saba Chaudhry 1* ORCID logo, Abdah Akim 2, Muhammad Naveed Zafar 3, Naila Safdar 4, Yeong Yik Sung 1, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad 1

1 Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia.
3 Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.
4 Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Abstract

Cancer is a complex mechanism involving a series of cellular events. The glycoproteins such as hyaluronan (HA) are a significant element of extracellular matrix (ECM), involve in the onset of cancer developmental process. The pivotal roles of HA in cancer progression depend on dysregulated expression in various cancer. HA, also gain attention due to consideration as a primary ligand of CD44 receptor. The CD44, complex transmembrane receptor protein, due to alternative splicing in the transcription process, various CD44 isoforms predominantly exist. The overexpression of distinct CD44 isoforms (CD44v) standard (CD44s) depends on the tumour type and stage. The receptor proteins, CD44 engage in a variety of biological processes, including cell growth, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis. HA-CD44 interaction trigger survival pathways that result in cell proliferation, invasion ultimately complex metastasis. The interaction and binding of ligand-receptor HA-CD44 regulate the downstream cytoskeleton pathways involve in cell survival or cell death. Thus, targeting HA, CD44 (variant and standard) isoform, and HA-CD44 binding consider as an attractive and useful approach towards cancer therapeutics. The use of various inhibitors of HA, hyaluronidase (HYALs), and utilizing targeted Nano-delivery of anticancer agents and antibodies against CD44, peptides gives promising results invitro and invivo. However, they are in clinical trials with favourable and unfavourable outcomes, which reflects the need for various modifications in targeting agents and a better understanding of potential targets in tumour progression pathways.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Cancer pathways, CD44, Cell proliferation, Hyaluronan, Targeted therapeutics, Tumor progression, Nanotechnology
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Submitted: 15 Mar 2020
Revision: 14 Jul 2020
Accepted: 15 Jul 2020
ePublished: 15 Jul 2020
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